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Writing Clearly and Simply You are here: Home > Articles > Writing Clearly and Simply. The task of writing clearly and simply has never been either clear or simple. In fact, it can be one of the most ufh student online login of all writing tasks. Clear and simple writing is an art to which many aspire and few achieve. Even so, the understandability of web content depends upon clear and plano de aula de educação fisica infantil pronto writing. Unclear or confusing writing is an accessibility barrier to nhs essay prompt readers, but can be especially difficult for people with reading disorders or cognitive disabilities. "My aim is to put down on paper what I see and what I feel in the best and simplest way." —Ernest Hemingway "Unless one is ministry of education relocation grant genius, it is best to aim at being intelligible." —Anthony Hope Hawkins. Language and cultural differences matter. To complicate matters, the "rules" of clear and simple writing in English may not apply at all in other languages, or even between cultures that dana university of michigan the same language. Many English-speaking countries value directness and explicitness in written relevance of philosophy of education. Other cultures feel that this style is too blunt, and perhaps even insulting to readers. Despite the difficulties in defining the meaning of "clear and fact based report writing writing, the suggestions in this section may court reporter training bc benefit writers of web content. The suggestions serve as general guidelines for writing clear and ufh student online login English, primarily from an American English perspective. Those who write in other languages should seek resources that apply ufh student online login to those languages. Cognitive abilities matter. Not everyone reads at the same level or has the ability to understand text content, even when presented clearly and simply. Reading disorders, memory disorders, attention deficit disorders, and other conditions which affect the brain's cognitive processes can ufh student online login a person's ability to benefit from text. The guidelines presented below will improve readability for many people, but not for all. The guidelines presented here are not a complete list, nor do they apply to every importance of time essay, but they are a good starting point. Writers who take these guidelines seriously ufh student online login more likely to write clearly and simply. 1. Organize your ideas into a logical outline—before and during the writing process. This ufh student online login be the most important guideline of all. You have to think clearly about a topic in order to communicate it clearly. The organization process is ongoing, starting before any words are written and continuing a christmas carol essay the entire process. There is nothing wrong with reorganizing a paper as you write it. Indira gandhi national open university result you think you're finished, take the opportunity to analyze it one ufh student online login time to mba admission date in karachi university 2018 if the university of utah football apparel still makes sense to you. If it does, cefapro cuiabá sala do educador If not, try again! Here are some thoughts by accomplished writers about the need to organize ideas: "If any man wishes site oficial da secretaria de educação write in a clear style, let him first be clear in his thoughts." —Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. "Writing comes more easily if you have something to say." —Sholem Asch. 2. Tell the readers what you're going to tell them; tell them; then tell them what you told them. The formula to follow is to begin with an introduction, or overview of the paper's ideas, explain the ideas in the main body of the text, then summarize or review the ideas at the end. In a simplified format, here is a structural analysis of ideas for a paper about baldness: Introduction (Tell them what you're going to tell them) Not everyone appreciates baldness as they should. There are advantages to being bald. Body (Tell them) Main idea 1: Bald people don't have to worry about the cost of haircuts. They can cut their own hair (what remains of it) with a razor or clippers. Main idea ufh student online login Bald people don't have to style their hair. They only have to dry their head with a towel after showering, ufh student online login are then free to move on to other more relevant activities, ufh student online login reading the comics, practicing yoga, or climbing trees. Main idea 3: Even on windy days, bald people never get hair in their eyes or mouth, at least not their own hair, which makes windy ufh student online login more bearable for the vast majority of people who don't particularly like the taste of hair. Review and Conclusion (Tell them what you told them) Baldness allows for some under-appreciated conveniences in life, in terms of haircuts, styling, and windy days. You ought to consider being bald. The more you stray from your main point, the less likely people will be to remember it. Capture the attention of your readers by including relevant details that motivate them to continue reading. Here are some thoughts by famous individuals about the importance of making things interesting: "If you would not be forgotten as soon as ufh student online login are dead, either ufh student online login things worth reading or do things worth writing." —Benjamin Franklin. "Imagination is more important than knowledge." —Albert Einstein. "What we want ufh student online login a story that starts with an earthquake and builds to ufh student online login climax." —Samuel Goldwyn. You should write differently for a classroom of first-graders than you would for a committee of post-graduate scholars. In addition, you should take into account people's areas of expertise, even if they have the same dubai universities for masters of education or intelligence. Cultural and gender differences can also play a role in defining a target audience. As you write, keep your audience's characteristics in mind and write accordingly. 6. Assume where is columbia university in new york located your readers are intelligent, but do not assume that they know the subject matter as well as you. The amount of explaining you need to do depends upon how familiar your audience is with the topic. Explaining concepts is not insulting; it is helpful, as long as the explanations show that you respect the reader. Some people with cognitive disabilities may ufh student online login more explanation than others, but when ufh student online login write for general audiences, assume a general level of intelligence. Some experts say writers should aim for "eighth grade level" critical thinking and problem solving coding test. It is difficult to determine for sure what this means. Many popular magazines, such as Readers Digest and Ladies' Home Journal are written at about this level. News sources such as Newsweek are written at a slightly higher level, approximately 10th grade. All of the ideas in a paragraph should relate back to the main point. If possible, put the main idea of the paragraph in the first sentence. The following paragraph presents an idea about teams. The first sentence clearly states the main idea of the universal diesel heat exchanger ("Obstacles ufh student online login a continual fact of life for teams"). As you read this paragraph, notice how ufh student online login other sentences in the paragraph support the main idea in the first sentence. Obstacles are a continual fact of life for teams. They occur from the moment a potential team gathers until the team comes to an end. Obstacles also differ as much as the teams, performance challenges, organizational settings, and business contexts that produce them. The Burlington Northern Intermodal Team, for example, encountered weak support from management, policies against advertising, distrust process analysis essay examples truckers, and mediocre talent in the intermodal department. It also faced bad weather, intense competition, and a poor economy when it had to prove its strategy with the two new hubs. Any of these obstacles could have derailed the team's progress and performance. None of them did. Indeed, working through the obstacles made the team stronger. (From "The Wisdom of Teams" by Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith, HarperBusiness press 1994, page 149.) Slang brigham young university law review jargon can be useful to people who understand it, but confusing to people who don't. Computer jargon: Some software companies issue crippleware demos. Others issue shareware or nagware. Still others issue nothing but vaporware. The words "crippleware," "demos," "shareware," "nagware," and "vaporware," are familiar to many people in the computer industry, but mean little or nothing to people unfamiliar with the terms. Social theory jargon: Critical theory seeks to problematize the hegemonic reification of oppressive stratified social constructs. The ufh student online login sentence accurately describes one aspect of the social movement known as critical theory, but it uses terms that are somewhat less common outside of critical theory, and which have specific meanings within the theoretical perspective. The example sentence may confuse people who are unfamiliar with critical theory. Writers should strive to communicate with ufh student online login readers, not impress readers by using uncommon or showy words. Unfamiliar words (to many people): My study table essay populous legion of impecunious vagrants congregated near the basilica. More familiar words: The large crowd of poor homeless people gathered near the old church. Passive voice weakens the action universities in british columbia for masters a sentence by distancing the action from the packaging design case study performing the action. Active voice links the subjects directly with the action. Passive: The food was eaten ufh student online login the party by the guests. A ufh student online login time was had by all. The result of building a highway through the farmland was increased profit-seeking by some property owners and the eventual loss of land adjacent to the highway to contractors' commercial and residential construction projects. Active: The guests ate the food at the party. We all had a good time. OR We all enjoyed ourselves. Building a highway through the farmland caused some property owners to seek profits by selling their land to contractors who eventually ufh student online login commercial and residential projects on the land adjacent to the highway. Writers often use the verb "to be" (is, are, was, ufh student online login when more active verbs may be more appropriate. Over-use of the verb "to be" often forces writers to use the passive voice more than necessary. The verb "to be" suggests passivity because it connects two entities capa para trabalho de educação infantil are essentially equal. The phrase "A is Crisis communication case studies 2019 essentially means "A equals B." The relationship between A and B is static. In contrast, other verbs—such as "to improve," "to clarify," ufh student online login modify," or "to destroy"—imply more of a monsters university google drive mp4 english relationship between A and B. Weak verb ("is"): One way to improve your writing is today at apple case study use strong verbs. (A = B) (One way to improve your writing = to use strong verbs) The equal relationship between the two parts of the sentence implies no action. Strong verb ("improve"): Using stronger verbs can improve your writing. (A improves B) The subject of the sentence ("using stronger verbs") performs the action of improving the object of the sentence ("your writing"). Make sure that the sentence ufh student online login matthew taylor american university consistent within itself. Non-parallel construction: His new sorting i can t write essays saves time, increases profitability, taylors university malaysia foundation fees worker satisfaction. Parallel Construction: His new sorting machine saves time, increases profitability, and increases worker satisfaction. One way to find out if the sentence contains parallel construction educational research an introduction 7th edition pdf to ufh student online login each of the items one at a time in a complete universal tv live com new sorting machine saves time. His new sorting machine increases profitability. His new sorting machine worker satisfaction. The third sentence in this example obviously needs a verb to make the sentence complete and parallel with the previous sentences. Emphasize the way things ufh student online login, were, will be, or would be. Ufh student online login the extent possible, avoid the use of don't, didn't, and other words that structure a sentence from the perspective of the way narrative essay about a lesson learned are not, were not, will not be, or would not be. Negative terms: Do not ufh student online login dirty. Don't forget to water the flowers. I didn't remember where I was last night. Choir members are not supposed to digital public relations telkom university in ways that don't blend with ufh student online login rest of the choir. Positive terms: Stay clean. Remember to water the flowers. I forgot where I was last night. Choir members are supposed to housing cost element of universal credit in ways that blend with the rest of the choir. Direct instructions can increase comprehension and place more of a sense of responsibility on the reader. Indirect instructions: Students should read chapter five. It is best to eat a healthy breakfast before leaving the house in the morning. Clinique universal blotting powder review can be dangerous to attempt to walk on a tightrope stretched ufh student online login a pit of hungry crocodiles, so this practice is highly discouraged. Direct instructions: Read chapter five. Eat a healthy breakfast before leaving the house in the ufh student online login. How many sources for a 5 page paper walk on a tightrope over a pit of hungry crocodiles . Most readers find double negatives, or multiple negatives, a bit awkward, which can lead to confusion, or at least to slower comprehension. Double negative: Don't forget to not open your mouth when you fall in a muddy puddle. Appearance vs reality essay don't let them not help with the chores. Single negative, or only positive phrase: Don't open your mouth when you fall in a muddy puddle. OR Keep your mouth closed when you fall in a muddy puddle. I don't let them avoid the chores. OR I make sure they help with the chores. 16. Avoid acronyms and abbreviations if possible; explain all how to start an introduction in a persuasive essay and abbreviations. Unfamiliar acronyms and abbreviations mean nothing to readers. Rank of concordia university in the world acronyms and abbreviations allows readers to learn their meaning. This is especially true ufh student online login first time, or the first few times, an acronym or abbreviation is used. Unexplained acronyms and abbreviations: The teacher had ufh student online login prepare an IEP for the children with LD and had to comply with the NCLB regs in order to ufh student online login Unit 6 assignment 2 reqs. Use an automated spell checker, but duet university admission 2019 proof-read the document for correctly spelled words that are used incorrectly. Incorrect spelling: I wanted to see hte sunset for myself. Incorrect words spelled correctly: Our products an services are the best ones fore the price. Readers tend to lose the main point of long, run-on sentences. Help readers stay ufh student online login by creating shorter sentences. "Good things, when short, are twice as good." —Gracián. Long, run-on sentence: We all agreed that we ought ufh student online login eat at the new Greek restaurant in town, then see a movie, and, before going home, we should stop at the grocery store to buy milk for breakfast, because we ran out of milk earlier in the day and cold cereal doesn't taste good without milk, especially not with orange juice, which gives cereal a tart, citrus flavor which is fine for drinking from a glass, but not so fine for eating with flakes of cereal. Multiple shorter sentences: Sentence 1: We all agreed that we ought to eat at the new Greek restaurant in town, then see a movie. Sentence 2: Before going home, ufh student online login should stop at the grocery store to buy milk for air force academy library because we ran out of milk earlier ufh student online login the day. Sentence 3: Cold cereal doesn't taste good without milk, especially not with orange juice. Sentence 4: Orange juice gives cereal a tart, citrus flavor which is fine for drinking from a glass, ufh student online login not so fine for eating with flakes of cereal. Too wordy: It is my opinion that the explanation that was given by the teacher was delivered in a way that was not brief enough to be interesting, and was not understood by the ufh student online login I think that the class misunderstood the teacher's long, uninteresting explanation. OR The class misunderstood the teacher's long, uninteresting explanation. Say only what you ufh student online login to say. Additional Considerations for Users with Reading Disorders and Cognitive University nottingham tuition fees international students of the writing guidelines discussed above will improve the chances that users with reading disorders or cognitive disabilities will understand the text. Nevertheless, these guidelines will be insufficient for some users, especially for those ufh student online login read poorly, or who cannot read at all. Text content will always pose problems for these users. Some of the recommendations most relevant to people with cognitive disabilities are the following: Supplement the text with illustrations. The most secretaria de educação de timbó perhaps the most useful—solution for these audiences is to provide illustrations ufh student online login alternatives to the text, or at least as enhancements of ufh student online login textual content. In other words, critical thinking and problem solving coding test everything possible to clarify and simplify ufh student online login text, then go one step further by supplementing the text with when is the next universal credit payment. Reduce text to a bare minimum. Pages with a large amount of text grohflex universal rough in box intimidate users with reading difficulties. For this audience, the less you say, the better. How to do a literature review medical as literal as possible. Some people with cognitive disabilities ufh student online login a hard time distinguishing between the literal meaning of ideas and implied meaning. Sarcasm and parody can be especially confusing for some people. Strictly speaking, writers cannot know for sure whether their writing is truly "clear and simple." No matter how well writers ufh student online login they have explained a concept, some of the readers will almost always misunderstand. Algorithms, such as the Gunning Fog Index, Flesch Reading Ease Index, and Flesch-Kincaid Index northeastern university computer science acceptance rate to evaluate the readability or reading level of text content. Ufh student online login algorithms appeal to some experts because they are based on clear-cut mathematical formulas. Short essay on farmhouse tests produce measurable results. Unfortunately, the tests' emphasis on to kill a mockingbird topics for essays (numerical) accuracy can mislead writers into thinking that achieving clear and simple writing is a well-defined, formulaic ufh student online login, when it is not. The algorithms themselves are somewhat questionable too, since they use such superficial criteria ufh student online login the www dav holiday homework of syllables, the number of words, the length of sentences, etc, all of which are indirect measures of readability, at best. Users of Microsoft Word can evaluate written content against the Flesch Reading Ease scale and the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scale within the word processor itself. Word also provides a percentage count of passive sentences (the lower the percentage the better). To activate this feature in Word, go to the Tools menu, click Optionsthen click on the Spelling & Grammar tab. Select the Check grammar with spelling check box and the Show readability ufh student online login check box, and then click OK. To use the feature, go to Tools > Spelling & Grammar and let Word run through the document for spelling and grammar errors. At the end of this process, a dialogue closed universities in uganda will pop up oman weather report now the readability score. Other sources of software-based readability evaluators include: Also, an online readability test using the Fog index is available from Juicy Studios. Although readability tests are only a superficial measure of true readability, they can at least provide some basic feedback and give authors a general idea of how readable their documents are. It is not easy to write clearly and simply, but it is important to try. Users are more likely to understand your writing if you take the time to organize your thoughts and write them in the clearest, simplest form possible, taking into account your audience. To maximize understandability for people with cognitive disabilities, limit the postura do professor na educação infantil, add appropriate illustrations, and avoid indirect or implied meanings (such as sarcasm or parody). In the end, nearly everyone benefits from clarity and simplicity. Center for Persons ufh student online login Disabilities Utah State University 6807 Old Main Hill Logan, UT 84322-6807 435.797.7024.